Tag Archives: Educational

10 ways to build Flight Time for Airline Pilot Job

So now that you got yourself a Commercial Pilot Certificate or CPL as it is known outside of the United States, how do you go about building that flight time or flight experience to make it to that first airline pilot job interview? Airline hiring has traditionally been a roller-coaster ride. There are times when even the pilots with a few weeks old commercial certificate get hired immediately by a Regional Airline, and then there are times like right now that it is almost impossible to even find an airline employer that is even accepting job applications. This has been the way of an airline pilot job prospective ever since the dawn of commercial aviation, and probably will `always be the same.

What do we do in the meanwhile, until that first airline job? We “build time” or flight experience, and keep doing it until we achieve our goal. Here are a few popular ways that airline pilots have traditionally used to gain that well needed flight time before they got hired:

  1. Flight Instructor: Becoming a flight instructor has been one of the top choices for time building since a long time now. And if you ask me, it is one of the best ways, as you not only build that pilot time, but you gain valuable real life aviation experience. The more you teach, the more you learn. And any employer, including the airlines value the flight experience gained as a flight instructor.
  2. Banner Tow Pilots: If you live in or close to a metropolitan like San Francisco, you can find yourself a job (mostly part time) as a banner tow pilot. These jobs are mostly seasonal and on call type, and the pay rate can vary on either side of the peak. However, it is a great experience, and lots of fun. You won’t get rich at this job, but if you end up with the right company, you can expect pretty consistent flight time.
  3. Aerial Photography: Similar to the Banner Tow pilot job, but if you can market yourself the proper way (nowadays with the internet it is not as difficult as it used to be), you can pick up quiet a few clients. And who are your clients? Well, could be the photographers, marketing companies, and a lot of others as well. And if you want to go the easy way, just find a job with an existing aerial photography company in your area.
  4. Glider Tow Pilots: Gliders can be launched up in the air by various means, like winch tow, self launch, rocket propelled etc. However one of the most commonly used method is aero-launch, where a powered aircraft “pulls” the glider with a tow and takes it up to a certain altitude before the glider pilot releases the tow hitch. Busy over the weekends, and in the summers. And they always need pilots. Pay is usually not the greatest, but hey, it is always a fun weekend, and occasional glider rides as well.
  5. Skydiver Pilots: Similar to the Glider Tow pilot job. Launch skydivers up there instead of the gliders, and again busy during the weekends and holidays, and occasional chances at skydiving yourself.
  6. Traffic Watch Pilots: The companies who provide traffic watch aircraft and pilots usually are contracted by the local news and/or law enforcement agencies. These jobs are usually pretty consistent (scheduling and pay), and normally can get you a pretty consistent flow of flight time. 4-6 hours a day, 5 days a week is the average. And you can find them in just about any metro area.
  7. Safety Pilot: This is not really a job, but can always add some flight time in your logbook. Use a blog, or a pilot forum and offer your services as a safety pilot to instrument rated, or current instrument student pilots. Use simple business cards to hand out at the local aviation safety meetings, or post them over at the local FBO bulletin boards. The trick here would be to stand out from among the crowd. Offer the advantages of why you and not the other guy, and you will see occasionally opportunities coming your way. The best thing I have always liked about this way: as most pilots contacting you would be aircraft owners, you will get to experience all kinds of makes and models, big and small aircraft.
  8. Aircraft Ferry Pilots: There are companies who can hire you as a ferry pilot. I know a few myself. But, my suggestion here is: contact as many aircraft dealers as possible, and introduce yourself. These folks are usually the first ones who know about an upcoming ferry request, and usually are the ones who recommend it to the new aircraft owners. A few relationships can turn into great cross-country time for you. And you get to stay in nice motels / hotels all over the country, and if you get lucky, even internationally. I know of pilots (former students of mine) who have delivered general aviation aircraft half way across the globe!
  9. Aircraft Sales: Working as an aircraft sales person always gets you some flight time as a result of demonstration flights. And usually pays good if you can sell aircraft as well. There are a lot of pilots who have accepted these jobs as a full time career, and are happy with it.
  10. Charter Pilots: Air Ambulance, bank checks, cargo operators, courier sub-contractors, fractional ownership management, and similar part 135 operators are available all over the country. Pick the one you think you can work with, and offer your services. Negotiations and relationships can go long ways in these kinds of jobs. Really, there is no limit, and tremendous growth potential for the right candidate here.

Federal Aid for Flight Training

You should also read my other post 101 General Aviation and Flight Training Scholarships. Besides the scholarships, there are many other financing options available for flight training courses. In this post we will review the financial aid or financial assistance available through the US Federal Government.

The U.S. Federal government provides certain programs to help students fund the cost of their education at a college, university, professional, technical, or a vocational school. There are various federal programs available for students who are enrolled at least half time in a college degree program, and maintaining satisfactory academic progress, and not in default on a previous grant or loan. Financial aid offered from the federal government is based on individual financial needs and situations.

If you desire to receive financial assistance from the federal government, you must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The FAFSA application is utilized by the U.S. Department of Education to determine your Expected Family Contribution (EFC) and eligibility for available federal aid programs.

The available federal programs include the following:

Federal Pell Grant

The Federal Pell Grant is a grant that does not have to be re-paid. This grant is available for undergraduate students  currently enrolled at least half time and is based on financial needs. The grant amounts range from $400 to $4,050 depending upon the estimated family contribution.

Federal Perkins Loan

The Federal Perkins loan is awarded to under-graduate and graduate students enrolled at least half time and is based on exceptional financial needs. This is a loan and must be re-paid. Students are encouraged to apply as early as possible, as this program has limited funding availability.

Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG)

FSEOG is available for under-graduate students enrolled at least half time and is based on financial needs. Assistance offered varies in each individual case. Awards range from $100 to $4,000 per year.

Federal College Work-Study Program (CWSP)

CWSP is available for graduate or under-graduate students enrolled at least half-time and is based on needs. Students can work a maximum of 20 – 25 hours per week against at least the minimum wages.

Federal Supplemental Loan for Students (SLS)

SLS is available for graduate and independent under-graduate students enrolled at least half time. Loan amount available: $4,000 a year for the first and second years of under-graduate studies; $5,000 for the third and fourth years of studies provided the student attends a full academic year. Total funds available: $23,000 for under-graduates; $73,000 for graduate/professional students (including undergraduate amounts).

Federal Parent Loan for Undergraduate Students (PLUS)

PLUS is available for parents of dependent students and allows parents to borrow money to assist their children pay for the college tuition fee. The student must be enrolled at least half time. Parent loans are not based on financial needs. The amount borrowed each year can be up to the college tuition fee less any other financial aid received. The parent(s) can obtain the application from any participating lending institution or the Financial Aid Office of the school. There is no limit on the cumulative maximum totals of the loan. However, deferred payments are not possible, and loan re-payment starts two months after the loan is fully disbursed.

Federal Stafford Loan Program (subsidized and un-subsidized)

All Federal Direct Stafford Loans are either subsidized (the government pays the interest while you’re in school) or un-subsidized (borrower pays all the interest; however, the payments can be deferred until after graduation). Stafford Loans are available to under-graduate and graduate students enrolled at least half time and in good standing and is based on financial needs. Maximum loans available are: $2,625 for freshmen, $3,500 for sophomores, $5,500 for juniors and seniors, and $8,500 for graduate or professional students, but not to exceed $23,000 for under-graduates or $65,500 for under-graduate and graduate loans combined. You can obtain an application from any participating lending institution or the Financial Aid Office of the school.

The Student Guide is the most comprehensive resource on student financial aid from the U.S. Department of Education. This guide provides the detailed information about: student eligibility, financial needs, dependency status, application, special circumstances, withdrawals, deadlines, types of Student Federal Aid, borrower responsibilities, and rights, important terms, phone numbers and web site addresses etc. This publication is updated each year. The Student Guide is available in English and Spanish, an can be downloaded from the U.S Department of Education’s web site.

5 Questions you should ask yourself before starting Flight Training

Have you been thinking about learning to fly an airplane? Or have you thought about it in the past? How about, have you ever dreamed about piloting an airplane? If you answered yes to any of the above questions, then go ahead and read on.

Learning to fly an airplane is fun, easy, and a mission possible in most people’s case. Here, read the questions below that you should ask yourself if you ever considered learning to fly or getting yourself a pilot’s certificate.

1. Motivation – What do I need to learn how to fly for; pleasure, business or as a career?

2. Location –Where should I go get my flight training done?

3. Source – What type of flight training provider would be best for me?

4. Scheduling – Full time, part time, formal or informal, what type of scheduling would work the best for me?

5. Financial – How am I going to pay for my training? Would I need financial aid, student loan, personal loan, or some other type of financial assistance?

The reason you should ask these questions to yourself is because it helps you chose the right program, and also helps you understand the budgets and time / effort commitment required. I’ll give you some ballpark numbers here to think about:

If you want to learn how to fly for pleasure, you are looking at about a total of 60-70 hours of flight training time, and about 40-50 hours of ground studies, and to get the best bang for the buck, you should expect about 10-12 hours of training time per week. If it is for pleasure, then you really can simply take the training at your own convenience, or go to one of those vacation / accelerated training places with or without your family. Cost of the training will depend on many variables, like when, where and which aircraft. But for most people, you are looking at about $6000 to $10,000 price range. Of course, there are ways to make it cheaper as well as luxurious and high end as well.

For business reasons, the basic training as above is still required, but what changes is the motivating factor, and possibly some tax advantages, both for training and then actually renting / owning an aircraft and the related cost factors (operating expenses).

As a career? Well, now that is a very detailed topic, I can write a few books on it. Write me an email for any specific questions, and subscribe to this blog (RSS Feed). I write about all this here just about everyday. So read and educate yourself. Here, read these 2 posts for starters: Top 20 Career Options as a Pilot, and 101 General Aviation and Flight Training Scholarships.

Where to get your flight training? Options could be: a local flight training school, a flying club, an independent flight instructor (or CFI as we call them), a pilot flight instructor friend, a vacation / accelerated flight training gig, formal accredited flight training institutes, military academies, aviation college or university program, and so on.

Top 20 Career Options as a Pilot

When we think of pilots, most of us get an image of an airline pilot in our heads. Well, it is true that airline pilot career is one of the most glamorous and top choice career option for most professional pilots, but many chose to join one of the many other options available to them, and many do very well in those fields. Here are the few other career options as a pilot:

  1. Airline Pilots – fly for the airline industry worldwide, both major and regional airline carriers.
  2. Corporate Pilots – fly the high end, newer corporate airplanes for the rich and wealthy.
  3. Military Pilots – fly the state of the art, top of the line, military aircraft, and learn to fly for free (well, get paid0.
  4. Cargo Pilots – fly for the big and small cargo airlines, and cargo carriers, like FedEx, UPS etc.
  5. Air Taxi and Charter Pilots – fly for growing line of air taxi and charter operators worldwide.
  6. Ferry Pilots – fly as a ferry pilot for aircraft manufacturers like Boeing, Airbus, and then there are a lot of aircraft ferry companies available too, to go deliver the aircraft to it’s new owners.
  7. Patrol Pilots – fly for a news group to report traffic, police chases etc, or fly for aerial surveillance companies, like pipeline patrols, oil well patrols etc.
  8. Flight Instructor Pilots – a career option of choice for someone like me. Teach others how to fly, and get paid for it.
  9. EMR Pilots – fly for the air ambulance operators (big and small), helicopters and airplanes.
  10. Law Enforcement Pilots – most law enforcement agencies now have an aviation wing. And a lot of them hire pilots to fly their aircraft.
  11. Aerial Firefighter Pilots – this is mostly a contract and seasonal job, but you may want to combine this with some other job, like a full time firefighter job, or a military reserve pilot job, or a flight instructor job, then you can have the best of all the worlds.
  12. Aerial Crop-duster Pilots – similar line of work like #11 above, but you spray agricultural chemicals for the ag industry, and sometimes even for the local government bodies (pest control etc).
  13. Helicopter Pilots – a whole complete bag of choices, like, military, offshore oil industry, law enforcement, border patrol, DEA, Customs etc. Maybe even the mafia and drug lords. No, the last one was a joke!
  14. Astronauts – space travel in not limited to NASA guys only anymore. Civilian spacecraft are in the near future (well, they already are) going to be affordable to common people, and you can fly those cool high tech vehicles back and forth from earth to space all day long. Something to really think about.
  15. Test Pilots – fly for various aircraft manufacturers, both transport and general aviation, and thousands of other companies, training centers etc as a test pilot.
  16. Airshow Aerobatic Pilots – read my posts about Sean Tucker by clicking here and here (with videos), and you will get an idea. There are many like him who do this full time and part time.
  17. Aircraft Salesmen Pilots – many aircraft sales businesses, including general aviation aircraft manufacturers hire pilots to work as sales-people so they can go and demo the aircraft to prospective customers.
  18. Federal Government Pilots – probably one of the largest employer of pilots. In addition to all of the above, consider flying for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DEA, Customs, Border Patrol, Air National Guard, and many other agencies, even overseas deployment possibilities.
  19. Contract Pilots – fly for government contracting corporations like dyncorp etc, and you can pick and chose just about everything in your pilot career.
  20. Aviation Universities and College Pilots – many aviation educational institutes like Embry Riddle (ERAU), Daniel Websters etc hire pilots and flight instructors to teach in their aviation degree programs.

I wanted to make this list of 20 pilots today. Trust me, I can add many other pilot career options to this list right now, but it’s getting late and I need to go take care of personal stuff. When you are a pilot, sky is not the limit for you anymore!

Amazing NTSB (Animation) US Airways Airbus Crash Ditching in Hudson

NTSB’s investigation hearings of the Jan 15th, 2009 US Airways’ Airbus Flight 1549 bird-strike incident which led to the ditching of the aircraft in Hudson river have generated some potential recommendations – developing an on-aircraft anti-bird technology for rounding-up and wiping-out thousands of Canada Geese. At the hearings, Airbus test pilots supported Captain Sullenberger’s decision; to ditch the aircraft in the river instead of trying to make LaGuardia or Teterboro airports.

Airbus’ fly by wire system was commended for allowing Capt. Sullenberger to maintain the best airspeed for the ditching simply by holding the joystick in full aft position and letting the computers do the the rest; not letting the aircraft stall while he simply maintained the wings level.The hearings also reviewed and made public a rather compelling NTSB video animation with overlay-ed ATC audio and CVR content (textual). A board member’s call for more research into onboard bird-repellant or bird-deterrent technologies is supported by at least one study, conducted by Qantas and Precise Flight, which concluded that aircraft equipped with pulsed landing light system resulted in fewer bird strikes.

2004 Tests conducted by the U.S. Agriculture Department were less definitive; but further research (specifically, into flash frequency and light wavelengths) may be recommended by the NTSB.

101 General Aviation and Flight Training Scholarships

Since I have been thinking about compiling a complete list of all scholarship programs available for aviation training, I am posting here the interim list that I have prepared already. And, if you know of a program that is not mentioned in my post, please leave me a comment so I can add it. Also, on another post I have posted the Federal Aid for Flight Training available for certain qualifying candidates and training programs.

  1. American Historical Association – Fellowship in aerospace history. The American Historical Association will annually fund at least one Fellow, for one academic year, to undertake a research project related to aerospace history.
  2. Astronaut Scholarship Foundation – Scholarships in science and engineering. The Astronaut Scholarship Foundation was created to ensure that the United States would maintain its leadership in science and technology by supporting promising students in science and engineering.
  3. ATCA Scholarships Program – Air Traffic Control Association. Air Traffic Control Association (ATCA) Scholarships are awarded to help support the financial needs of those deserving students who have chosen to seek higher education in the science of air traffic control and other aviation disciplines, as well as children of air traffic control specialists.
  4. Aviation Scholarship Foundation – Flight training scholarships for teens in Illinois and Indiana. Discontinued in 2007.
  5. Aviation scholarships – Louisiana Tech listing of aviation scholarships, some specifically for African-Americans.There are a number of scholarships available to aviation students. Because of the frequent changes in the scholarship offerings, it is best to check with the Professional Aviation office regarding the current availability.
  6. Texas Space Grant Consortium – Scholarships and fellowships for students attending TSGC institutions. All graduate and undergraduate students that are attending TSGC academic institutions are eligible to apply.
  7. Aerospace Education Foundation (AEF) – AEF provides 800 scholarships and grants to flight students and educators. Special attention given to military applicants.
  8. Aircraft Electronics Association Educational Foundation – The AEAEF offers (27) scholarships totaling over $66,000 to graduating high school seniors and enrolled college students, seeking degrees in the field of aviation maintenance, avionics, and aircraft repair.
  9. Air Force Aid Society’s Education Grant – The Air Force Aid Society provides $1,500 grants to dependent children of active, retired, or deceased members of the Air Force Aid Society. In addition, the grants require financial need and full-time student status.
  10. AOPA – The Airline Pilots Association offers a four-year renewable $3,000 scholarship to students who are children of medically retired or deceased pilot members of the Airline Pilots Association. The executive committee will also consider freshman college students; high school seniors should apply during the second semester of their senior year.
  11. Airports Council International – North America Commissioner’s Roundtable Scholarship – The ACI-NA offers five annual scholarships up to $2,000 for enrolled undergraduates seeking a career in airport management. Must have a 3.0 GPA.
  12. Air Traffic Control Association – ATCA offers $600-$2,500 awards to promising students in an aviation related degree program. Successful candidates will have scholastic achievement, financial need, and the drive to succeed in the aviation industry.
  13. American Association of Airport Executives – The AAAE Foundation scholarship will grant $1,000 each year to a number of students with a junior or senior class standing, who are enrolled in an aviation management program. Applicants should have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and financial need.
  14. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics – The AIAA offers an award of $2000 to sophomore and higher Engineering students with a 3.0 GPA.
  15. AOPA Air Safety Foundation -The Air Safety foundation sponsors one $1,000 scholarship for both the McAlester Memorial and Donald Burnside Memorial Scholarships. Students must have junior or senior standing at the time of application, a 3.25 GPA, and be enrolled in a non-engineering degree program.
  16. Aviation / Aerospace Education Foundation – Bessie Coleman Scholarship to entering first-year students, Eugene Bullard scholarship to upper-class students. Both offer cash scholarships of $1,000 to students pursuing a degree in aviation or aviation-related field.
  17. Aviation Distributors and Manufacturers Association Scholarships – ADMA offers two $1,000 scholarships to students of the professional pilot program enrolled in either an aviation maintenance or aviation management program. Applicants must be a third- or fourth-year student in their program, and selections are based on scholastic achievement, and the content of their application package.
  18. Aviation Scholarship Foundation – The Aviation Scholarship Foundation funds a full course of private pilot training, start to finish, for half a dozen inner city youth from Chicago in gliders and airplanes each year. Scholarships are awarded annually each April with an April 15th deadline.
  19. Experimental Aircraft Association Foundation – The EAA Offers a variety of awards and scholarships ranging from $200 to full tuition (including books and equipment). Awarded to students seeking careers in aviation. International students may apply. There is a $5.00 application fee.
  20. Festival of Wings Over Houston – The Festival of Wings over Houston offers several scholarships up to the sum of $5,000. Must be a full-time status junior with a 3.0 GPA.
  21. Hispanic Scholarship Fund -The Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) is the largest Hispanic scholarship-granting organization in the nation. HSF offers different scholarship programs for students of various educational backgrounds. All applicants must be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents of Hispanic heritage.
  22. National Business Aircraft Association -NBAA offers (2) $2,500 scholarships and (3) $1,500 scholarships to students who are at least in a sophomore, junior, or senior class standing.
  23. National Gay Pilots Association – The NGPA offers a $2,000 scholarship, however, it cannot be used to pay for the training needed for a Private Pilot License. Must be 18 or older and majoring in engineering, or airport management.
  24. NIFA and GAMA Harold Wood ScholarshipOne scholarship is offered to students in any degree program, having completed at least one semester, and having a 3.0 GPA or better.
  25. National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship – NSF Fellowships are available to U.S. citizens entering graduate study in engineering. The fellowship includes a $15,000 stipend. Special programs are available for women and minorities.
  26. Northeast Chapter – American Association of Airport Executives – AAAE offers (4) $1,000 scholarships for undergraduate juniors and seniors enrolled in aviation management, with preference given to residents of the Northeast region.
  27. Professional Aviation maintenance Association – PAMA will award more than $30,000 in scholarships. Individual recipients of $1,000 scholarships are selected on the basis of educational performance, work experience, participation in school and community activities, career commitment, future potential, and financial need.
  28. Rockwell Collins – Dallas Female and Minority Scholarship – Rockwell Collins offers a $4,000 scholarship to a female or minority engineering student. Must have a 3.0 GPA, be full-time, and have completed at least one year or more in Electrical Engineering or Computer Science.
  29. Society of Women Engineers – SWE offers several scholarships to female and minority students enrolled in an engineering, aerospace or computer science programs. The class standing varies depending on the specific scholarship, but ranges from incoming freshmen to junior class standing. The amounts range from $1,000 to $5,000. One application is for all grade levels.
  30. Transportation Clubs International – Transportation Clubs International offers several scholarships to students enrolled in a transportation-related degree program.
  31. University Aviation Association – UAA offers an annual $500 scholarship. Must have a 3.0 GPA, and be a UAA member.Below is the list of scholarships offered through Women in Aviation International. Click on the link and you will see all of these scholarship details on that page.
  32. Aircraft Dispatcher Course – Airline Ground Schools, Inc. Airline Ground Schools (AGS) will award one dispatcher training award leading to an FAA Aircraft Dispatcher certificate.
  33. Aircraft Dispatcher Course – Airline Dispatcher Federation (ADF) Scholarship. ADF will award one dispatcher scholarship donated by Airline Ground Schools, Inc. leading to a FAA Aircraft Dispatcher certificate.
  34. Aerospace Engineering Scholarship – American Airlines and American Eagle Engineering Scholarship. American Airlines and American Eagle will award one $5,000 scholarship to a student pursuing a degree in the field of engineering – aerospace/aeronautical, mechanical, or electrical.
  35. Aerospace Engineering Scholarship – Delta Air Lines Engineering Scholarship. Delta Air Lines will award a $5,000 scholarship to a student currently enrolled in a Baccalaureate degree in Aerospace/ Aeronautical, Electrical, or Mechanical Engineering.
  36. Aerospace Engineering Scholarship – WAI Connecticut Chapter Engineering Scholarship. The scholarship will be awarded to a woman who wishes to pursue a career in the aerospace industry in the field of Engineering.
  37. Flight Training Scholarship – Airbus A320 Type Rating Certificate Scholarships (2). Applicants for the Airbus A320 type rating scholarships must hold a bachelor’s degree, commercial pilot certificate, instrument rating, certified flight instructor certificate and multiengine rating.
  38. Flight Training Scholarship – Anne Baddour Scholarship. The Anne Baddour Scholarship will be awarded to a female pilot with the following accomplishments: a burning desire to become a professional pilot, have at least a Private Pilot Certificate, be on track towards the ATP.
  39. Flight Training Scholarship – AOPA Student Pilot Scholarship. As part of its commitment to growing the pilot population, AOPA will award a $3,000 scholarship to a woman pursuing a private, recreational, or sport pilot certificate who has obtained a student pilot certificate.
  40. Flight Training Scholarship – Betsy Goldbach Aviation Scholarship. I love flying and would like to encourage others to explore the wonders of the sky. This scholarship may be used towards a Private Pilot Certificate or a Seaplane Rating.
  41. Flight Training Scholarship – Bombardier Business Aircraft Services Lear 31A Pilot Training Type-Rating Scholarships (2). In memory of Richard E. Blose, Learjet 31A Instructor Pilot, Bombardier Business Aircraft Services is offering two (2) Learjet 31A pilot type-rating scholarships.
  42. Flight Training Scholarship – CAE SimuFlite Citation Corporate Aircraft Training Scholarship. CAE SimuFlite will award a corporate aircraft training scholarship. It will include Citation initial training resulting in a type rating upon successful completion of the course.
  43. Flight Training Scholarship – Continental Airlines 737 Flight Training Scholarships (2). Continental Airlines is offering four Boeing 737NG type rating training scholarships. Criteria requires a minimum of 1,500 hours total time, 1,000 hours turbine, 1,000 hours multi, 1,000 hours PIC.
  44. Dare to Dream Scholarship – The sponsor of this scholarship would like to make a difference in the life of one deserving person who is pursuing her dream in the world of aviation. A $3000 scholarship will be awarded to an individual working toward an instrument or multi-engine rating, commercial or CFI certificate.
  45. Delta Air Lines Boeing B737-800 Type Rating Certificate Scholarships (2) – Delta Air Lines will award two B737-800 Type Rating Certificates to qualified recipients that are currently enrolled or have a Baccalaureate Degree.
  46. Delta Connection Academy Scholarship – Delta Connection Academy is happy to provide one WAI recipient a $5,000 scholarship to Delta Connection Academy.
  47. ExpressJet Airlines, DBA Continental Express, Regional Jet Transition Course – ExpressJet Airlines is offering two scholarships to participate in the initial ground school instruction on the EMBRAER 145 with a FTD session and CRM course; the first step to your path of becoming a First Officer.
  48. The Keep Flying Scholarship 2010 – The Keep Flying Scholarship was created after 9/11 to offer an intermediate level flight scholarship. Sponsors Deborah Hecker, Evelyne Tinkl and Janet Patton are offering one $3,000 scholarship to an individual working on an instrument or multi-engine rating, commercial or CFI rating certificate.
  49. Kathy K. Hodgkins Memorial Scholarship (floatplane training) – Kathy K. Hodgskins was a pioneer in the aviation community in Maine. She not only had an airline career with Continental Airlines, but she also had a successful floatplane operation with her husband, Tim.
  50. Ride The Sun Scholarship – Looking for assistance to extend your horizons and increase your aviation skills? Use this $500 monetary award to help defer the costs for out of the ordinary flight education.
  51. From Rose to Rise Scholarship – This scholarship will be given to someone who has soloed and is working toward a private pilot certificate, and shows a well-rounded aviation interest besides piloting, such as active participation in aviation groups, and demonstrated interest/participation in aviation history, promotion, and/or education.
  52. Sporty’s Foundation Flight Training Scholarship (2) – Sporty’s Foundation is offering Recreational Pilot Flight Training Scholarships (2) for small aircraft maintenance technicians.
  53. Women Military Aviators – Dream of Flight Scholarship 2010 – Women Military Aviators (WMA) seeks to preserve, for history, the important role women have played in creating and supporting the American Spirit through their contributions to flight, aeronautics and space.
  54. Airbus Leadership Grant – One scholarship will be awarded to a student at the college level of sophomore year or above who is pursuing a degree in an aviation-related field, who has achieved a minimum GPA of 3.0 (on a 4.0 scale) and who has exhibited leadership potential.
  55. The Boeing Company Career Enhancement Scholarship – The Boeing Company will award a scholarship to a woman who wishes to advance her career in the aerospace industry in the fields of engineering, technology development or management.
  56. Dassault Falcon Jet Corporation Scholarship – Dassault Falcon Jet Corp. is awarding a $1000 scholarship to support a woman seeking to pursue an undergraduate or graduate degree in an aviation-related field.
  57. Desert Jet Corporate Aviation Management Scholarship Desert Jet, an aircraft charter and management company based in the Palm Springs area of California, is sponsoring this scholarship to promote the professional development and leadership skills of business aviation pilots who seek careers in aviation management or desire to start their own aviation-related business.
  58. The Elisha Hall Memorial Scholarship – Elisha Hall (Mrs. Mark Bizzaro-WAI #2335) represented herself as a dedicated and passionate aviation professional. She was a leader, an explorer, and lived life to its fullest. She set both her sights, and her standards, high. To celebrate her life and accomplishments, Women in Aviation, The Wright Chapter, is offering a $1,000 scholarship to a woman who embodies the qualities that Elisha so splendidly exemplified, and is seeking to further her aviation career.
  59. If You Can Dream It, You Can Do It” Scholarship – Nicole Cagnolatti, A&P/Pilot has been the recipient of several WAI scholarships and benefited immensely from the assistance. She wants to personally contribute to the WAI Scholarships (for the 3rd year) by offering other aviation dreamers the opportunity to pursue their dream.
  60. Janet Clark Memorial Scholarship – The Washington State Chapter of Women in Aviation, International (WA-WAI) is offering a scholarship in the amount of $1500 in memory of Janet Clark, a member of the Washington State chapter. Janet worked with the FAA as an Airworthiness (maintenance) Aviation Safety Inspector. This scholarship is open to all aviation career fields and can be applied to an accredited program.
  61. PAI Consulting Aviation Safety Scholarship (3) – PAI Consulting, a women-owned aviation consulting firm that provides support to the government and industry, will award three $1,000 scholarships to women pursuing aviation safety studies.
  62. Women in Aviation, International Achievement Award (3). Two scholarship will be awarded to a full-time college or university student pursuing any type of aviation or aviation related career. A third scholarship will be awarded to an individual, not required to be a student, pursuing any type of aviation.
  63. Women in Corporate Aviation Career Scholarship – The Women in Corporate Aviation Career Scholarship is offered by the members and sponsors of Women in Corporate Aviation to any man or woman pursuing professional development or career advancement in any job classification of corporate/business aviation.
  64. Delta Air Lines Aircraft Maintenance Technology Scholarship – Delta Air Lines will award a $5,000 scholarship to a student currently enrolled in an Aviation Maintenance Technician Program (A&P) or a degree in Aviation Maintenance Technology. In addition to the $5,000 scholarship, the recipient will receive a trip to the 21st Annual International Women in Aviation Conference.
  65. Delta Air Lines – Engine Maintenance Internship – Delta Air Lines would like to extend a 2010 Summer Internship (13 weeks) opportunity to a student currently enrolled in a Baccalaureate degree in Aerospace/Aeronautical, Mechanical or Industrial Engineering. In addition to an internship position, the recipient will receive a trip to the 21st Annual International Women in Aviation Conference.
  66. Pratt & Whitney Maintenance Scholarships (6) – Pratt & Whitney will award six maintenance scholarships to individuals pursuing careers in aviation maintenance. Winners will have the option to attend any one of the maintenance courses offered by Pratt & Whitney or Pratt & Whitney Canada.
  67. Flo Irwin / Aircraft Spruce Scholarship – Flo Irwin was not a pilot, but she was a very astute businessperson who earned everyone’s respect in a “man’s world” as she built her business selling homebuilt aircraft parts. Aircraft Spruce has grown to be one of the leading distributors of aircraft parts worldwide by continuing Flo’s vision and business philosophy.
  68. GAT Wings to the Future Management Scholarship – GAT will give a scholarship to a female student in an aviation management or aviation business program at an accredited college or university.
  69. Women in Aviation Management Scholarship – This scholarship will be awarded to a woman in an aviation management field who has exemplified the traits of leadership, community spirit and volunteerism. The scholarship can be used to attend a leadership-related course or seminar to raise the individual’s level of management.
  70. Yeager Foundation WAI Scholarship Award – In 2005 the Chuck Yeager Foundation established a scholarship to assist those who may not otherwise be able to become involved in aviation. This scholarship will be awarded to a deserving WAI member who has applied for other WAI or Corporate Sponsor scholarships and who has unique circumstances that impede their ability to advance their aviation plans.
  71. FedEx Express B-727 Aircraft – FedEx Express is accepting applications from qualified aviation schools/universities; airport rescue/firefighting groups; government agencies; museums and other aviation education organizations for a B-727 airplane from the company’s retiring fleet. To be considered for this donation, please submit a detailed summary of your organization, including information about your program, how the aircraft would enhance your program and any joint use opportunities with other area programs to increase the utilization of the asset.And here are some more. I could not find the website links to these, however, as much contact information I could gather, I have it posted alongside.
  72. Alpha Eta Rho Scholarship – Alpha Eta Rho, National Headquarters, 4627 Ocean Blvd., #220, San Diego, CA 92109. – Alpha Eta Rho offers five annual $500 scholarships to active members of the Alpha Eta Rho.
  73. Aviation Council of Pennsylvania – 3111 Arcadia Ave., Allentown, PA 18103.
  74. Civil Air Patrol Scholarship – CAP offers several scholarships to its members who have achieved the Billy Mitchell award, or senior rating in Level II of the training program. Amounts range from $750 to $1,500; the number of awards varies based on funding. Applications are available through squadron commanders.
  75. Eastern New England 99’s Aviation Career Scholarship – 14 Cooke Place,Warwick, RI 0288 (New England Residents only).
  76. Ernie Ayer Aviation Scholarship – Contact by e-mail: TAyer73352@aol.com, Contact by phone: (201) 447-4164. The amount of this aviation scholarship is open. The award will be made in installments following the achievement of certain goals. Two letters of recommendation and an official transcript are required.
  77. Eugene Kropf Scholarship – c/o Professor Bernard W. Wulle, Aviation Technology Department, 1 Purdue Airport Rd., West Lafayette, IN 47906-3398. A $500 scholarship is available to students in an Aviation program at any grade level, with a 3.0 GPA. E-mail: bwulle@purdue.tech.edu.
  78. Florida Spaceport Chapter – The Ninety Nines, Inc. – 2289 Cox Road, Cocoa Beach, FL 32926. This scholarship is offered to female students 18 years of age and older to provide assistance in flight training for a career in the aviation field. Must hold at least a private pilot certificate. Applications will be judged on neatness as well as sincerity of purpose and need of financial assistance. Web site: www.ninety-nines.org or http://spaceport99s.tripod.com.
  79. Joseph Frasca Excellence in Aviation Scholarship – Dr. David A. NewMyer c/o College of Applied Sciences and Arts, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6623; (618) 453-8898. Two $1,000 scholarships will be awarded to juniors or seniors with a 3.0 GPA. Applicants must hold FAA certifications in either aviation maintenance or flight, have membership in an aviation organization, and have financial need. E-mail: newmyer@siu.edu.
  80. General Aviation Manufacturers Association – 1400 K street NW, Suite 801, Washington, DC 20005-2485.
  81. Greater Miami Aviation Association Grover Loening Scholarship – 621 East Ridge Village Drive, Miami, FL 33157; (305) 971-9365 Several scholarships of up to $5,000 are available to students who have completed 30 credits, 15 of which must be in aviation. students must have a 3.0 g.p.a. or higher in the field of Aviation and must be U.S. citizens.
  82. Illinois Pilot Association Scholarship – IPS State Headquarters, 801 1/2 S.4th St., Apt. A, Springfield, IL 62703. IPS offers one annual $500 scholarship to a student involved in an aviation degree program.
  83. International Aviation Career Scholarship – Contact: ISA +21, PO Box 38644, Denver, CO 80238. Annual $1,200 scholarship awarded to a female pilot with a commercial license and at least 250 hours flight time and who is pursuing a career as an airline pilot. Sponsored by International Association of Women Airline Pilots.
  84. MAPA Safety Foundation – P.O. Box 46067, San Antonio, TX 78246-0607.
  85. Marion Barnick Memorial Scholarship – $1,000 scholarship to a female who holds at least a private pilot certificate and is either a member of the Ninety Nines (99’s) or a student at San Jose State, Gavilian College, Foothill College or West Valley College in California. For further scholarship information visit the Santa Clara Valley 99’s web page at http://www.pilotsguide.com/scv99s/ or call their voice mail that at (408) 327-9505.
  86. McAllister Memorial Scholarship – AOPA, 421 Aviation Way, MD, 21701. McNeil Consumer Products Company 7050 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, PA 19034-2299.
  87. Montana Department of Transportation Aeronautics Division, 2630 Airport Rd. P.O. Box 5178, Helena, MT 59604-5178.
  88. Mooney Aircraft Pilot’s Association – MAPA Safety Foundation Inc. PO Box 460607 San Antonio, TX 78246-0607. To receive an application, please send a self addressed envelope to address above.
  89. Nancy Horton “Touch the face of God” Scholarship – Nancy Horton Scholarship Fund, Inc., 4466 NE 91st Ave. Portland, OR 97220-5024. Scholarship offered in memory of Nancy Horton for female students 18 years of age or older training for their commercial aviation license or above. Applicants must have a 3.0 GPA, be highly recommended by her flight instructor, and have a letter of recommendation.
  90. National Air Transport Association – Lisa Copella, National Air Transport Association Foundation, 4226 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302; (703) 845-9000. NATA offers two grants each year under the Pioneer of Flight Scholarship Program. There are two scholarships for applicants pursuing careers in General Aviation as opposed to commercial airlines. Both grants are for $2,500. The academic scholarship is renewable for one year if academic excellence is maintained.
  91. National Space Club – Dr. Robert H. Goddard Scholarship – 2000 L Street NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036-4907. The National Space Club sponsors a $10,000 award to a student who is a junior enrolled in an aerospace program. Must be a U.S. citizen.
  92. Ninety Nines, Inc. (99’s) – Contact Thom Griffith, Chairman, Amelia Earhart Memorial Scholarship Committee, 134 Robinhood Lane, Costa Mesa, CA 9261. The Ninety-Nines award a scholarship to female pilots. The scholarship amount depends on the recipient’s needs. For further information.
  93. Organization of Black Airline Pilots (OBAP) P.O. Box 50666 Phoenix, AZ 85076-0666.
  94. Pioneers of Flight – UAA c/o Central Missouri State University, TR Gaines #210, Mr. Steve Quick, Warrensburg, MO 64093; (660) 543-4085. Pioneers of Flight offers four scholarships up to $2,500. Applicants must be nominated. Must have a 3.0 GPA, and be a full-time student.
  95. Phi Chi Theta Foundation Scholarship for Women – Scholarship Chairman, 8656 Totempole Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45249. The foundation sponsors one to three $1,000 scholarships for full-time graduate female students pursuing a business administration degree who have completed at least one semester of study. Recipients are selected based on scholastic achievement, leadership potential, motivation, and financial need.
  96. Safe Association Scholarship – c/o Scholarship Coordinator, Embry-Riddle, 3200 Willow Creek Road, Prescott, AZ 86301-3720. A $1,000 scholarship is awarded to full-time upper-class student or graduate student with a 3.0 GPA.
  97. Soaring Society of America Youth Soaring Scholarship – CADET Scholarship, Soaring Society of America, PO Box E, Hobbs, NM 88241. $600 towards a sailplane flying lessons, and lesser prizes of textbooks and memberships. Young persons between ages 14 and 22 and not holders of any FAA pilot licenses. Application forms are available at gliderports only.
  98. Southeastern Airport Managers Association Scholarship – Two annual awards up to $1,500 for students with a B.S. degree in airport management or directly related curriculum. Contact; Southeastern Airport, Manager Association, c/o John R. Games, Treasurer, Owensboro-Daviess County Regional Airport, PO Box 1913, Owensboro, KY 42302.
  99. Student Pilot Network Scholarship – SPN is offering a single scholarship in the amount of $1000 which will go towards the flight training costs of a current or prospective flight training student enrolled in or accepted at any flight training program.
  100. Virginia Airport Operators Council Aviation Scholarship Award – VOAC Scholarship, c/o Herbert B. Armstrong, Airway Science Program, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23688. $500 scholarship and two runners-up receive $50 towards a career in aviation. Recipients must be accepted by an accredited college.
  101. Whirly-Girls Scholarships – Whirly-Girls, P.O. Box 7446; Menlo Park, CA; 94026, 415-462-1441. Annual $4,000 scholarship to a female commercial airplane pilot to fund/obtain an initial or additional helicopter rating.

You should also check FAA website for additional information. In case I missed one or two. Plus the scholarship offerings and availability keeps on changing all the time. My advice is that you either subscribe for our newsletter, so whenever we announce something on the site you won’t miss out on time critical information.

How to protect your Hearing in Aviation industry

  • Limiting duration of exposure to noise. OSHA established permissible noise exposure limits for the workplace (including the cockpit of an aircraft).
  • Use Hearing Protection Equipment. If the ambient noise level exceeds OSHA’s permissible noise exposure limits, you should use hearing protection devices—earplugs, earmuffs, communication headsets, or active noise reduction headsets. Even if an individual already has some level of permanent hearing loss, using hearing protection equipment should prevent further hearing damage. These protection devices attenuate noise waves before they reach the eardrum, and most of them are effective at reducing high-frequency noise levels above 1,000 Hz. It is very important to emphasize that the use of these devices does not interfere with speech communications during flight because they reduce high-frequency background noise, making speech signals clearer and more comprehensible.
  • Earplugs. Insertable-type earplugs offer a very popular, inexpensive, effective, and comfortable approach to provide hearing protection. To be effective, earplugs must be inserted properly to create an air-tight seal in the ear canal. The wax impregnated moldable polyurethane earplugs provide an effective universal fit for all users and provide 30 to 35 dB of noise protection across all frequency bands.
  • Communication headsets. In general, headsets provide the same level of noise attenuation as earmuffs, and are also more easily donned and removed that earplugs, but the microphone can interfere with the donning of an oxygen mask.
  • Active noise reduction headsets. This type of headset uses active noise reduction technology that allows the manipulation of sound and signal waves to reduce noise, improve signal-to-noise ratios, and enhance sound quality. Active noise reduction provides effective protection against low frequency noise. The electronic coupling of a low frequency noise wave with its exact mirror image cancels this noise.
  • Combinations of protection devices. The combination of earplugs with earmuffs or communication headsets is recommended when ambient noise levels are above 115dB. Earplugs, combined with active noise reduction headsets, provide the maximum level of individual hearing protection that can be achieved with current technology.

Types and Effects of Noise exposure in Aviation

In one of my previous articles we talked about the Sound, Hearing and Noise in aviation. You can read that article by clicking here. Let’s talk now about the types and effects of noise.

Types of Noise

Steady: Continuous noise of sudden or gradual onset and long duration (more than 1 second). Examples: aircraft power plant noise, propeller noise, and pressurization system noise. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the maximum permissible continuous exposure level to steady noise in a working environment is 90 dB for 8 hours.

Impulse/blast: Noise pulses of sudden onset and brief duration (less than 1 second) that usually exceed an intensity of 140dB. Examples: firing a handgun, detonating a firecracker, backfiring of a piston engine, high-volume squelching of radio equipment, and a sonic boom caused by breaking the sound barrier. The eardrum may be ruptured by intense levels (140dB) of impulse/blast noise.

EFFECTS OF NOISE EXPOSURE

Physiologic

  • Ear discomfort: May occur during exposure to a 120 dB noise.
  • Ear pain: May occur during exposure to a 130 dB noise.
  • Eardrum rupture: May occur during exposure to a 140 dB) noise.
  • Temporary hearing impairment. Unprotected exposure to loud, steady noise over 90 dB for a short time, even several hours, may cause hearing impairment. This effect is usually temporary and hearing returns to normal within several hours following cessation of the noise exposure.
  • Permanent hearing impairment: Unprotected exposure to loud noise (higher than 90dB) for eight or more hours per day for several years, may cause a permanent hearing loss. Permanent hearing impairment occurs initially in the vicinity of 4,000 Hz (outside the conversational range) and can go unnoticed by the individual for some time. It is also important to remember that hearing sensitivity normally decreases as a function of age at frequencies from 1,000 to 6,000 Hz, beginning around age 30.

Psychological

  • Subjective effects: Annoying high-intensity noise can cause distraction, fatigue, irritability, startle responses, sudden awakening and poor sleep quality, loss of appetite, headache, vertigo, nausea, and impair concentration and memory.
  • Speech interference: Loud noise can interfere with or mask normal speech, making it difficult to understand.
  • Performance: Noise is a distraction and can increase the number of errors in any given task. Tasks that require vigilance, concentration, calculations, and making judgments about time can be adversely affected by exposure to loud noise higher than 90 dB.

Selecting Sunglasses for Pilots

Pilot Sunglasses – Aviator

A Summary of how to select best Sunglasses for Pilots

Here is the summary of things to keep in mind while selecting the best sunglasses for pilots, and for that matter, just about anyone who wants to protect his or her vision and have the best quality visual perception. There are other articles (listed at the bottom of this post) on this blog which talk about all this in great detail. Maybe you should read all those articles as well to gain maximum knowledge on the subject. 

SUMMARY.

  1. While adding to the mystique of an aviator, sunglasses protect a pilot’s eyes from glare associated with bright sunlight and the harmful effects from exposure to solar radiation.
  2. Lenses for sunglasses that incorporate 100% ultraviolet protection are available in glass, plastic, and polycarbonate materials. Glass and CR-39® plastic lenses have superior optical qualities, while polycarbonate lenses are lighter and more impact-resistant.
  3. The choice of tints for use in the aviation environment should be limited to those that optimize visual performance while minimizing color distortion, such as a neutral gray tint with 15 to 30% light transmittance.
  4. Polarized sunglasses are not recommended because of their possible interaction with displays or other materials in the cockpit environment.
  5. Since sunglasses are an important asset, whether or not refractive correction is required, careful consideration should be used when selecting an appropriate pair for flying.
  6. The technology associated with ophthalmic lenses is continually evolving, with the introduction of new materials, designs, and manufacturing techniques.
  7. Aviators should consult with their eye care practitioner for the most effective alternatives currently available when choosing a new pair of sunglasses.

References

  1. La Comission Interntionale de l’Eclairage (CIE). Figures correspond broadly to the effects of UVR on biological tissue.
  2. World Meteorological Organization. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project – Report No. 37, Geneva, Switzerland: 1995.
  3. Rash CE, Manning SD. For Pilots, Sunglasses are Essential in Vision Protection, Flight Safety Foundation Human Factors & Aviation Medicine, July-August 2002; 49(4): 1-8.
  4. MEDICAL FACTS FOR PILOTS Publication AM-400-05/1 Written by Ronald W. Montgomery, B.S. Van B. Nakagawara, O.D. Prepared by FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Aerospace Medical Education Division AAM-400, P.O. Box 25082 Oklahoma City, OK 73125
Tony Scott – Top Gun – the movie

Pilot’s Sunglasses’ Additional Features

I wrote about the basic information about a Pilot’s Sunglasses in one of my posts titled Sunglasses for Pilots (click here), and then I wrote about the Materials that are available today, and how to pick the correct kind in the post titled Aviators’ Sunglasses Lens Material Options (click here). And I had promised that I will write more about the Extra Features that we need to keep in mind when selecting the best Sunglasses for Pilots, and for that matter, anyone who wants the best eye protection and quality vision.

Here is the list of those extra features that you need to keep in mind as well:

COATINGS

Special coatings can be applied to lens materials for reasons such as those previously mentioned. Crown glass and most plastic lenses require a specific coating to block residual ultraviolet radiation. Plastic and polycarbonate lenses require a scratch-resistant coating to prolong their useful life. The scratch-resistant coating applied to polycarbonate lenses absorb tints and dyes. High-index materials benefit from AR coatings to improve transmissivity due to their high reflective properties.

While AR coats can improve optical clarity, they are extremely porous, attracting water and oils, making the lenses difficult to clean. Lenses with AR coatings should be “sealed” with a smudge- and water-repellant coat that extends the useful life of the AR coat and makes the lenses easier to keep clean. Coatings must be applied correctly, and lenses must be meticulously cleaned for the process to be successful. Coated lenses should be handled with care and not subjected to excessive heat to avoid delamination or crazing.

TINTS

The choice of tints for sunglasses is practically infinite. The three most common tints are gray, gray-green, and brown, any of which would be an excellent choice for the aviator. Gray (neutral density filter) is recommended because it distorts color the least. Some pilots, however, report that gray-green and brown tints enhance vividness and minimize scattered (blue and violet) light, thus enhancing contrast in hazy conditions. Yellow, amber, and orange (i.e., “Blue Blockers”) tints eliminate short-wavelength light from reaching the wearer’s eyes and reportedly sharpen vision, although no scientific studies support this claim.3 In addition, these tints are known to distort colors, making it difficult to distinguish the color of navigation lights, signals, or color-coded maps and instrument displays. For flying, sunglass lenses should screen out only 70 – 85% of visible light and not appreciably distort color. Tints that block more than 85% of visible light are not recommended for flying due to the possibility of reduced visual acuity, resulting in difficulty seeing instruments and written material inside the cockpit.

POLARIZATION

Polarized lenses are not recommended for use in the aviation environment. While useful for blocking reflected light from horizontal surfaces such as water or snow, polarization can reduce or eliminate the visibility of instruments that incorporate anti-glare filters. Polarized lenses may also interfere with visibility through an aircraft windscreen by enhancing striations in laminated materials and mask the sparkle of light that reflects off shiny surfaces such as another
aircraft’s wing or windscreen, which can reduce the time a pilot has to react in a “see-and-avoid” traffic situation.

PHOTOCHROMIC

Glass photo chromic lenses (PhotoGray® and PhotoBrown®), like their plastic counterparts (Transitions®), automatically darken when exposed to ultraviolet and become lighter in dim light. Most of the darkening takes place in the first 60 seconds, while lightening may take several minutes. Although most photo chromic lenses can get as dark as regular sunglasses, i.e., 20% light transmittance in direct sunlight, warm temperatures (>70°F) can seriously limit their ability to darken and reduced ultraviolet exposure in a cockpit can further limit their effectiveness. In addition, the faded state of photo chromic glass lenses may not be clear enough to be useful when flying in cloud cover or at night.

FRAMES

The selection of sunglass frames is probably more a matter of personal preference than lens material or tint. The frames of an aviator’s sunglasses, however, must be functional and not interfere with communication headsets or protective breathing equipment. Frame styles that incorporate small lenses may not be practical, since they allow too much visible light and ultraviolet radiation to pass around the edges of the frame. A sunglass frame should be sturdy enough to take some abuse without breaking, yet light enough to be comfortable. An aviator’s sunglasses should fit well so that sudden head movements from turbulence or aerobatic maneuvers do not displace them. Finally, use of a strap is recommended to prevent prescription sunglasses from being accidentally dislodged, or a necklace chain can be used to allow them to be briefly removed and subsequently replaced.